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Embedded OS - Non RTOS and RTOS

embedded os rtos non rtos

Non RTOS

According to a survey in Embedded System Design, more than a quarter of embedded systems now in development won't have an OS at all. None. A little over 28% of all our survey-takers said the system they're designing now won't have so much as a tiny scheduler or task switcher.

Main Software Loop

In this design, the software simply has a loop. The loop calls subroutines, each of which manages a part of the hardware or software. This method is called round-robin. The round-robin method is very popular in small microcontrollers.

Interrupt Controlled System

Some embedded systems are predominantly interrupt controlled. This means that tasks performed by the system are triggered by different kinds of events. An interrupt could be generated for example by a timer in a predefined frequency, or by a serial port controller receiving a byte.

These kinds of systems are used if event handlers need low latency and the event handlers are short and simple. Usually these kinds of systems run a simple task in a main loop also, but this task is not very sensitive to unexpected delays.

Sometimes the interrupt handler will add longer tasks to a queue structure. Later, after the interrupt handler has finished, these tasks are executed by the main loop. This method brings the system close to a multitasking kernel with discrete processes.

Most of above shedulers or kernels are developed in house. They are simple and easy-to-use. They are not RTOS because they are only sheduler part of an OS. A complete OS includes scheduler, task switching and resource allocation, memory management.

Non Real Time Embedded OS

Not every embedded operation systems are designed for real-time, for example, Windows CE is not a real-time OS, but it is a multi-tasking OS. But you know, as time goes by, things change a lot. These OSes are improved by using real-time kernels or patches.

A lot of similiar OSes have already faded out. Such as PPSM from Motorola (for its 68K/ARM DragonBall CPU), Zaurus from Sharp. The propertiary OS for TX MIPS micro from Toshiba (Sorry I forgot name of OS, but it was popular in Toshiba's Taiwanese customers)...


Palm OS, running on Motorola/Freescale 68K based Dragonball CPU and ARM9 CPU, Development tools available freely from official web site and 3rd parties.

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EPOC/Symbian, supports ARM CPU. leader in mobile phone market.










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RTOS

Commercial


RTX, CMX Real-Time Multi-Tasking Operating System products support most embedded Microcontrollers, Microprocessors and DSPs. We also support more than 30 compiler vendors. Please contact us for further information on any of our RTOS products such as CMX-RTX(tm), CMX-TINY+(tm), CMX-TCP/IP(tm), CMXBug(tm), and CMXTracker(tm).CMX supports most of the 8/16/32/64 bit microcontrollers, microprocessors and DSPs. CMX also has configuration an studio for development.

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RTXC, by Embedded Power Corportation. Now its name is Quadros. RTXC is RTOS and integrated middleware in TCP/IP, CAN, USB, IrDA, FS, GUI. The development tools are RTXC Bridge and VisualRTXC, ported to ARM, ColdFire, Blackfin.

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Integrity Green Hills Software is a well-known OS supplier for embedded system. Its offerings are INTEGRITY/velOSity/u-velOSity OSes, and IDEs of MULTI, AdaMULTI, DoubeCheck, TimeMachine, as well as many compilers, communication software and off-the-shelf product designs. It supports development platform on Linux and Windows PC and SPARC workstation. The supporting microprocessor list is too long. You'd better to check it out by yourself. But most of the supporting processors are 32bit architectures.

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Keil offers a OS/Kernels for 8051/C166/ARM processors. They are:RTX51 tiny, free available in its kit, limited features.RTX51 full, enhanced features with CAN bus.RTX166 Tiny, similiar to RTX51 but for C16x platform.ARTX-166 Advanced, C16x/ST10, full features includes Flash file system and TCP/IP stack.RL-ARM Real-Time Library, complete RT kernel for ARM7/9/Cortex-M3, with Flash file system and TCP/IP suites.

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AMX, Since its introduction by KADAK in 1980, AMXTM has been recognized as a superior RTOS which meets the most critical needs of the most challenging real time applications, and yet remains easy to use and simple to understand. It supports x86,68K,ColdFire,PPC32 PowerPC, ARM7, ARM9,StrongARM,Xscale,and MIPS32.

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embOS, developed by SEGGER Microcontroller, it is a real-time operating system for embedded applications designed to offer the benefits of a fully fledged multitasking system at minimum cost. The kernel is fully interruptible and so efficient that it can be used in very time critical situations. The memory footprint in both RAM and ROM is so small that it can be used in single-chip applications, leaving maximum room for the user-program.

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iRMX, by tenAsys. The gold standard in real-time software for the x86 architecture, the iRMX III operating system, has been proven in thousands of demanding real-time applications worldwide. Designed specifically to support Intel x86 architecture 32-bit CPUs and associated chipsets, the iRMX III operating system is highly configurable from a small-footprint, kernel-only solution to a full-service, hard real-time operating system. iRMX configurations support PC and non-PC architectures, such as Multibus and Multibus II.

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Nucleus, by Mentor Graphics, The Nucleus OS can significantly improve the performance, response times and memory system utilization in many complex systems, where other bulkier OS choices add significant overhead and do not provide real-time response.

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OS-9, by RadiSys. Top-ranked in recent RTOS surveys, OS-9 is proven world-wide in thousands of products representing hundreds of embedded applications, including industrial automation & control, automotive, and medical instrumentation.

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OSE, a powerful platform for the design of real-time embedded systems. OSE's message based architecture instantly and seamlessly achieves powerful simplicity in complex and distributed systems.

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pSOS, aqcuired by Wind River Inc, now. It used to be a major embedded OS, but the current status is unknown.

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Phoenix-RTOS is the realtime operating system intended for embedded systems. The main goal of the Phoenix-RTOS project is to develop free, portable, small and well-designed realtime operating system for embedded hardware platforms like SBC (Single Board Computers), SOM (System on Module) and SoC (System On Chip). It supports IA32, PowerPC and ARM.

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QNX, Its ultra-reliable nature means QNX software is the preferred choice for life-critical systems such as air traffic control systems, surgical equipment, and nuclear power plants. And its cool multimedia features have QNX software turning up in everything from in-dash radios and infotainment systems to the latest casino gaming terminals.

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Salvo, Salvo has modest ROM and miniscule RAM requirements. This mean that you can have event-driven, priority-based, multitasking applications in nearly any single-chip microcontroller, with plenty of room left for your application. It is a product of Pumpkin, Inc. It supports 8051/ARM/AVR/M68HC11/MSP430/PIC12/PIC24/PIC32/TMS320 DSP.

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ThreadX is an advanced Real-Time Operating System (RTOS) designed specifically for deeply embedded applications. ThreadX has many advanced features, including its picokernel? architecture, preemption-threshold,? and a rich set of system services. Combined with its superior ease-of-use, ThreadX is the ideal choice for the most demanding of embedded applications. It is developed by Express Logic.

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VRTX, by Mentor Graphics as well. Product strategy is unclear

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VxWorks, Wind River. The microsoft in embedded OS. VxWorks could be the most widely used OS in embedded world.

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XMK, The eXtreme Minimal Kernel (XMK) is a real-time operating system (RTOS) that is designed for minimal RAM/ROM use. It supports AVR, H8 and many 8 bit microcontrollers.

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Open Source

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OSEK/VDX, a OS standard used in automotive distributed applications. OSEK is not a OS, but a standard interface and design guideline for OS.

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TRON, The Real-time Operating system Nucleus, ITRON is a Japanese open standard for a real-time operating system (RTOS) initiated under guidance of Ken Sakamura. This project aims to standardize the RTOS and related specifications for embedded systems, particularly small-scale embedded systems. The ITRON RTOS is targeted for consumer electronic devices, such as mobile phones and fax machines. Various vendors (most Japanese) sell their own implementations of the RTOS.

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FreeRTOS is a portable, open source, mini Real Time Kernel - a free RTOS. This site shows how a complete embedded real time system can be created from a Windows host using quality open source development tools (where available). It supports ARM7/MSP430/AMD/AVR/8051.

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MicroC/OS-II. uC/OS-II is a highly portable, ROMable, very scalable, preemptive real-time, multitasking kernel (RTOS) for microprocessors and microcontrollers. It supports many processor architectures including ARM7 and ARM9; and can handle up to 255 tasks, providing services such as semaphores, message mailboxes and task management. uC/OS-II has been ported to many microcontrollers and microprocessors. The OS is not free for commercial purpose with a lot of middleware from 3rd parties.

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InfraBed is a portable RTOS that has been ported to the ARM7 architecture using the Keil tools. It is developed by Embedded Artists. Free for non-commercial purpose.

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TinyOS. Crossbow Technology, Inc. announces the availability of the TinyOS 2.0 Operating System for Crossbow's advanced IRIS motes. This enables developers to use the latest generation software on the latest generation Sensor Network hardware. The sensor is using AVR microcontroller with open source GNU compiler.

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eCos is an open source, royalty-free, real-time operating system intended for embedded applications. The highly configurable nature of eCos allows the operating system to be customised to precise application requirements, delivering the best possible run-time performance and an optimised hardware resource footprint. A thriving net community has grown up around the operating system ensuring on-going technical innovation and wide platform support. eCOS supports ARM, CalmRISC, FR-V, H8, IA32, M86K, AM3x, MIPS, NEC v8xx, PowerPC, SPARC, SuperH. Detail list please check their web page for hardware.

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Nut/OS is an intentionally simple RTOS for the ATmega128, which provides a minimum of services to run Nut/Net, the TCP/IP stack. It supports AVR-GCC/ICCAVR/CodeVisionAVR.

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AvrX is a Real Time Multitasking Kernel written for the Atmel AVR series of micro controllers. AvrX contains approximately 40 API in the Six categories. The Kernel is written in assembly. Total kernel size varies from ~500 to 700 words depending upon which version is being used. Since the kernel is provided as a library of routines, practical applications take up less space because not all functions are used. It supports IAR assembler and GCC Ccompiler.

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Read also:
http://dev.emcelettronica.com/embedded-os-linux-co
http://dev.emcelettronica.com/embedded-os-multi-core-os
http://dev.emcelettronica.com/embedded-os-resources-copyright-and-legal-...

Read also: Embedded OS.

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